Doctor of Physical Therapy Degree

Mount St. Mary's College provides doctoral education to a diverse student body culminating in physical therapists with sound clinical reasoning in a variety of settings who are committed to professional and personal development, social citizenship and ethical, compassionate care.

This graduate degree program offers professional education based on a foundation of liberal arts and sciences. It is a three-year (9 semester) program of academic rigor requiring full time study throughout the curriculum. Concentration on the basic and clinical sciences is integrated with physical therapy patient/client management principles and procedures. The total educational experience of the student involves life-long learning, and the physical therapy curriculum facilitates this value throughout the student's acquisition of knowledge and development of intellectual skills, professional behaviors, cognitive abilities, and practice competencies. The program design provides early and continual integration of clinical experiences that foster maximum development of the student's clinical thought processes, and provides opportunities for mastery of the personal and skill-based competencies requisite for entry-level practice. The Physical Therapy Department is committed to providing an education that enables graduates to be generalist practitioners of the highest quality. The learning environment nurtures students to become skilled professional practitioners, possessing the skills of clinical reasoning and effective communication. Students experience and discover the person and service-oriented aspects of health care including:

  1. An understanding of the holistic nature of health, integrating body, mind, spirit and emotion
  2. An understanding of human beings their inherent dignity, their diverse cultures, and ethnicity
  3. A respect for the role of compassion and communication in health and healing
  4. A respect for the role of mutual trust and responsibility in patient relationships
  5. An ethical basis for decision making

As integral members of the health care team, graduates impart their knowledge and skill through competent and compassionate patient care, enlightened education, scholarly activity and research, quality consultation and a commitment to life-long learning and professional development.

The program is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education, the official accrediting body for Physical Therapy Education Programs. Upon successful completion of all clinical and academic requirements, the degree of Doctor of Physical Therapy is awarded. Graduates are eligible for licensure in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

The DPT program utilizes the Physical Therapy Centralized Application Service (PTCAS) for all program applicants.

DPT Required Documents Include:

  • Transcripts: one official copy from each college attended submitted directly to the Office of Graduate Admissions (in addition to PTCAS)
  • Three recommendations (academic, physical therapist, and interpersonal skills assessment) (submit to PTCAS)
  • Statement of Interest as well as evidence of physical therapy experience (submit to PTCAS)
  • Evidence of physical therapy experience (submit to PTCAS)
  • Admission Interview required (scheduled upon preliminary review of the application)
  • Official GRE Score Report or TOEFL (submit to Graduate Admissions)

DPT Admission Requirements:

  • Cumulative Grade Point Average (for last two years of undergraduate study) of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale.
  • Pre-requisite Grade Point Average of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale.
  • Composite Score of 1000 on the Verbal and Quantitative sections of the Graduate Record Examination.
  • Knowledge of the profession attained preferably by paid or volunteer clinical experience including outpatient and inpatient settings. Experience verified by a licensed physical therapist.
  • Demonstration of satisfactory written and oral communication skill (essay and interview).
  • For applicants whose first language is other than English, a TOEFL score of at least 550.
  • Acceptable recommendations: one from an academician with direct knowledge of the applicant's academic ability; one from a physical therapist who can address the applicant's clinical potential and communication skills; and one from an individual who can address the applicant's problem solving skills
  • Submission of completed application with all official transcripts, recommendation forms and Graduate Record Examination results to the Physical Therapy Centralized Application Service. Admission decisions for Fall begin the previous December. For guaranteed consideration, documents must be received by December 1. Upon acceptance to the program official transcripts must be sent directly to the Office of Graduate Admissions.
  • Admission decisions are made within 3 weeks of interview

DPT Prerequisite Coursework

To be acceptable, letter grades of C or higher are required. All prerequisite courses must be taken on a graded basis. All science courses must have laboratories. The requirements presented are on the semester system. If the applicant has attended an institution which is on the quarter system, it must be recognized that three quarter units are equivalent to two semester units. Prerequisite science courses must have been taken within the last ten (10) years at an accredited college or university in the United States. Introductory courses are not accepted for credit toward prerequisite course work. All applicants must show evidence of satisfactory completion of the following courses:

Biology (General) 2 semesters with lab (8 units)

Upper division science (3 units)

Chemistry: 2 semesters with lab (8 units)

Communication: 1 semester written (3 units), 1 semester speech (3 units)

Human Anatomy: 1 semester with lab (4 units)

Human Physiology: 1 semester with lab (4 units)

Physics: 2 semesters with lab (8 units)

Psychology: 3 semesters (9 units): general, two elective

Statistics: 1 semester (3 units)

Recommended (not required):

Computer Science/Literacy

Critical Thinking

Ethics

Gerontology

Kinesiology

Motor Learning/Development

All courses must be completed by the summer prior to enrollment in the program.

Admissions decisions are made on a rolling basis. To be considered for priority admission, applications must be submitted directly to PTCAS by or before December 1 of the year prior to intended enrollment.

The Physical Therapy Admission Committee retains discretionary authority in the application of all the criteria for admission and their decision is final. Applicants will be notified of their status within 3 weeks of interview. Applicants for admission are considered on the basis of the qualifications of each student without regard for race, religion, sex, age, national or state origin. Individuals who have received their Baccalaureate degree outside of the United States must have their credentials and transcripts evaluated by a recognized credential evaluation agency before the application for admission to the DPT degree program will be considered.

Clinical facilities in the clinical portion of the curriculum are utilized throughout California and the United States.

DPT Financial Arrangements

Students are responsible for the financing of their education. Information and assistance is available and should be directly requested from the Office of Student Financing. For the tuition expenses for the DPT program, see the tuition expense section at the beginning of this catalog, or on the College website at www.msmc.la.edu.

Requirements for the Professional Program

The Doctor of Physical Therapy program offers the student an entry-level professional degree. As such, to remain in the program, the student must achieve grades of C or higher in all physical therapy course work. A grade point average of 3.0 is required in each semester for continuation in the program. The letter grade of C- in one course results in suspension from the program until the course is repeated and a letter grade of C or higher is achieved. One repeat of a course is permitted. Letter grades of two or more C-s or Ds or one F results in dismissal/disqualification from the program. The student must achieve a grade of A or B for each clinical practicum, affiliation and internship. A student may not be advanced to the next component of the curriculum until a grade of A or B is attained. More than one failed clinical practicum, affiliation or internship results in dismissal from the program. If student performance in a clinical setting is deemed unsatisfactory or unsafe according to the standards of the facility, the College, the accrediting agency, or the state, the student may be suspended or disqualified from the program. A cumulative average of less than 3.0 in any given semester will result in academic probation. Two sequential semesters of academic probation will result in dismissal from the program. In order to remain in the program, the student must obtain a 3.0 term GPA by the end of the academic semester immediately following the semester that resulted in probation status.

Before enrollment and prior to each clinical practicum/affiliation/internship, evidence of acceptable health status must be on record with Student Health Services. This includes but is not limited to tuberculosis screening, current immunization and a physical examination. Students must also fulfill any additional clinical site specific requirements including, but not limited to, background checks and drug screening. Students are responsible for their own housing and transportation. During all clinical aspects of the program, students are required to carry health insurance and malpractice insurance.

DPT Curriculum: Design

The curriculum is a sequential 3-year, 9-semester design based on a foundation of hierarchical and adult learning theory. The curriculum design incorporates values, content and process components. In the domain of values, six values serve as a core for the program and are based on the mission and philosophy of the College and department. These values are compassion, communication, collaboration, community, critical thinking and competence (including professionalism).

Seven themes serve as the conceptual framework around which the curriculum is organized. They are Foundational and Basic Sciences, Medical Sciences, Critical Thinking/Research, Patient/Client Management, Practice Management, Integration Seminar, and Clinical Experiences. The program design incorporates the presentation of foundational sciences prior to clinical application; the appreciation of "normal" prior to learning "pathological;" a hierarchical organization that progresses content and process presentation from simple material to more complex content and skill application, and from the cognitive processing domains of knowledge and comprehension to application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. There is also an interweaving of progressively more complex clinical experiences with didactic learning within and outside of the classroom environment; and a consistent integration of learning (current and prior) through intentional learning activities and experiences. The program includes a total of 38 weeks of clinical experiences, culminating with a 10- and 12- week clinical internship.

Physical Therapy Courses

Foundational and Basic Sciences Courses

PT 401 Gross Anatomy (6)

This course is the integrated study of the gross, surface, and microscopic anatomy of the human body including the integumentary, nervous, musculoskeletal, circulatory, digestive, metabolic, respiratory, endocrine, and urogenital systems.

PT 402 Biomechanics (3)

This course provides a survey of various topics in the biomechanics of the human musculoskeletal system, with particular emphasis on understanding mechanics as applied to human movement and musculoskeletal tissue function, and the application of biomechanical principles to patient problems. The course covers three broad content areas: (1) basic biomechanical principles, (2) tissue mechanics, and (3) specific biomechanics for each of the major joints.

PT 403 Applied Kinesiology (3)

This course in applied kinesiology utilizes the principles of biomechanics and movement science to study clinically relevant examples of common human movements. The clinically oriented approach taken in this course includes consideration of both functional and dysfunctional movements using a lifespan perspective. Topics include the applied kinesiology of human posture, gait, and specific movements such as lifting, jumping, throwing, kicking.

PT 404 Applied Exercise Science (2)

This course includes the study of muscle, nerve, and cardio-respiratory physiology as they relate to exercise performance, conditioning, deconditioning, and the rehabilitation of disorders involving the neuromuscular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and endocrine systems.

PT 406 Lifespan Development (2)

This course examines normal growth and development across the human lifespan. All aspects of development are considered, including biological, cognitive, emotional, social, moral/ethical and spiritual.

PT 407 Neuroscience (3)

This course is designed to give an in-depth introduction and overview to neuroanatomy, neurodevelopment, neurological function, neuropharmacology, and neurophysiology. This course provides a basis for understanding clinical manifestations seen in neurological disorders.

Medical Sciences Courses

PT 410 Pathology/Medical Science: General Systems (2)

This course introduces concepts of tissue- and system-specific pathology and disease commonly encountered in patients/clients who receive physical therapy. Course content focuses on the mechanisms, types and processes of tissue injury and repair in major physiologic systems excluding musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, and neurological systems which will be addressed in later semesters.

PT 411A Pathology/Medical Science: Musculoskeletal (2)

This course is focused on the study of regional, tissue specific and system-specific pathology and disease commonly encountered in patients/clients who receive physical therapy in an orthopedic setting.

PT 411B Pharmacology/Diagnosis Technique: Musculoskeletal (1)

The first component of this course focuses on pharmacology as it impacts the practice of orthopedic physical therapy. The second component of this course will serve as an introduction to a variety of diagnostic technologies commonly used in the diagnosis and medical management of patients with neuromusculoskeletal dysfunction.

PT 412 Pathology/Pharmacology/Diagnostic Technique: Neuromuscular (3)

This course integrates the following components in the study of patients with neurologic injury and impairment: the pathological processes that result in neurological injury and impairment; the use of pharmacological agents in the medical management of neurologic patient problems as it impacts the practice of neurologic physical therapy; and the diagnostic technologies commonly used in the diagnosis and medical management of patients with nervous system pathology and dysfunction.

PT 413 Pathology/Pharmacology/Diagnostic Technique: Cardiopulmonary (3)

This course integrates the study of pathologies affecting the cardiac and pulmonary systems, their diagnosis, pathophysiological effects, and clinical manifestations with the study of the various diagnostic tests, and the significance of their results in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders. It also includes the pharmacological treatment of these disorders, as well as the indications, contraindications, and potential drug interactions which the physical therapist should be aware of in the treatment of these patients.

PT 415 Specialty Practices in Physical Therapy (1.5)

This course consists of lecture and laboratory components and is designed to prepare students to safely, legally, ethically, and appropriately evaluate and treat patients in niche practices in physical therapy. This may include treatment of the integumentary system/wound care, women's health and the management of patients with chronic pain.

Practice Management Courses

PT 431 Health Systems I: Introduction to Physical Therapy (2)

An introduction to physical therapy including history, professional issues and development, the Guide to Physical Therapy practice and written documentation.

PT 432 Health Systems II: Organizational Management (2)

A review of organizational socialization, organizational learning and organizational behavior with an emphasis on the management of change in physical therapist practice.

PT 433 Health Systems III: Payment Policy (1)

An overview of the various methods of health care reimbursement in the United States. Also includes methods for determining an appropriate fee schedule, developing a fiscally sound budget, effective documentation techniques for optimum reimbursement, and a discussion of current legislation affecting health care reimbursement.

PT 434 Health Systems IV: Law and Policy (2)

An overview of health care policy in the United States, health policy legislation and the role of the physical therapist and a thorough exploration of physical therapist practice and the California rules and regulations.

PT 435 Health Systems V: Medical Ethics (2)

This course will explore ethical issues in health care with the focus on the development of skills for ethical decision making in physical therapist practice.

PT 436 Health Systems VI: Entrepreneurialism (1)

This final course in the Health Systems Series considers professional development as a life-long activity and addresses the entrepreneurial, marketing and service aspects of physical therapist practice.

Integrative Seminar Courses

PT 441 Integrative Seminar I (1)

PT 442 Integrative Seminar II (1)

PT 444 Integrative Seminar IV (1)

The Integrative Seminars are a series of three courses, designed to provide for students' situated or contextual learning experience within the academic curriculum, in which to develop clinical reasoning skills and prepare students for practice in the clinical environment before they get there. The Integrative Seminars promote application and integration of newly acquired knowledge (propositional and non-propositional) with previously learned knowledge/experience, within a clinical reasoning framework. Examples of the types of knowledge/skills that will be integrated are basic sciences, research and evidence-based practice principles, biomedical knowledge, clinical skills, kinesthetic/motor skills, and observation skills, communication skills, collaboration skills, and self-evaluative skills.

Patient/Client Management Courses

PT 461 Physical Therapist as Educator (1)

Introduction to learning theory and its application to physical therapist practice, including patient/client management, education and consultation.

PT 462A Health Care Procedures I (2)

Introduction to basic physical therapy examination procedures and clinical reasoning skills utilized in patient care.

PT 462B Health Care Procedures II (2)

Introduction to basic healthcare procedures and clinical reasoning skills utilized in patient care.

PT 463A Therapeutic Interactions I (2)

This first of a series of three lecture/laboratory courses is an experiential opportunity for the student to develop, practice and apply techniques and principles of all phases of effective communication. The course is oriented toward learning about one's self and will provide opportunities for developing self-reflective skills and awareness of one's presentation, and communication strengths and areas for improvement, in the context of developing effective patient and peer relationships as a practicing physical therapist.

PT 463B Therapeutic Interactions II (1)

The second of the communications series concentrates on the relationship of self to and with others as revealed and experienced in everyday professional and personal encounters. It explores the role of team member and the interrelated responsibilities of team leadership and team participation.

PT 463C Therapeutic Interactions III (2)

This final course in the communications series explores the various roles of the physical therapist in the context of communication skills in the domains of both health (prevention and wellness) and illness (including chronic illnesses and disability).

PT 465 Therapeutic Modalities (3)

This course consists of lecture and laboratory components and is designed to prepare students to safely, legally, ethically, and appropriately apply physical agents and modalities such as heat, cold, light, sound, water, wrapping/taping, mechanical compression, and mechanical traction as components of physical therapy intervention. Also included are principles of electrophysiologic evaluation and electrotherapy, and soft-tissue assessment, massage, and soft-tissue mobilization.

PT 466A Therapeutic Exercise (2)

PT 466B Therapeutic Exercise (1.5)

This series of two courses consists of lecture and laboratory components focused on the process of examination and evaluation of patients/clients and intervention with therapeutic exercise. Course content includes management of patients/clients with a variety of underlying neuro-musculoskeletal pathologies and/or disease presentations. The focus of the course is identification and intervention of impairments correlated with functional limitation by application of therapeutic exercise and related interventions. Students will learn to use these interventions to assist patients/clients in regaining optimal function.

PT 467 Prosthetics/Orthotics (3)

Part I-Introduction to upper extremity, lower extremity and spinal orthotics. Discussion of various orthotic components, devices, and their applications. Assessment for orthotic candidacy. Part 2-Introduction to the principles and use of upper and lower extremity prosthetic devices, their components and application; the biomechanical analysis of normal vs. pathological gait; and therapeutic requirements for rehabilitation and reintegration of this unique patient population.

PT 468 Complementary Health Practices (1)

Provides the student with an understanding of the adjunctive and alternative health care practices in which patients may be participating and/or be appropriate for referral.

PT 471A Patient/Client Management: Musculoskeletal I (3)

This course is the first in a series of two courses on management by the physical therapist for patients with orthopedic dysfunction for all body regions. Each element of patient/client management will be considered throughout the course, including examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, and outcomes. This first course consists of lecture and laboratory components and focuses on introduction to foundational concepts with application to lower quarter body regions.

PT 471B Patient/Client Management: Musculoskeletal II (3)

This course is the second in a series of two courses on management by the physical therapist for patients with orthopedic dysfunction for all body regions. This second course consists of lecture and laboratory components and focuses on solidifying the knowledge of foundational concepts introduced during the first course (PT 471A), with application to upper quarter body regions. As the course progresses, student performance expectations will demonstrate higher levels of application, analysis, and synthesis of course content.

PT 471C Patient/Client Management: Musculoskeletal (Advanced) (3)

A lecture and laboratory course designed to facilitate the student in the application and expansion of concepts and skills acquired previously within the orthopedic curriculum and within the other patient/client management components of the curriculum. Within a strong clinical reasoning framework, students will evaluate and plan intervention strategies for more complex orthopedic patient problems, as well as for patients with primary orthopedic problems complicated by involvement of multiple other factors/systems.

PT 472A Patient/Client Management: Neuromuscular I (3)

This course is the first in a series of two courses on management by the physical therapist for patients with neurologic dysfunctions for the central and peripheral nervous systems. Each neurologic dysfunction presented will be considered in terms of examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, intervention and outcomes. The first course will focus on neurologic dysfunction resulting from lesions or pathology of the peripheral nervous system, spinal cord and brainstem.

PT 472B Patient/Client Management: Neuromuscular II (3)

This course is the second in a series of two courses on management by the physical therapist for patients with neurologic dysfunctions for the central and peripheral nervous systems. Each neurologic dysfunction presented will be considered in terms of examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, intervention and outcomes. This course will focus on neurologic dysfunction resulting from lesions or pathology of the central nervous system and cranial nerves.

PT 472C Patient/Client Management: Neuromuscular (Advanced) (3)

A lecture and laboratory course designed to facilitate the student in the application and expansion of concepts and skills acquired previously within the neuro curriculum and within the other Patient/Client Management components of the curriculum. Within a strong clinical reasoning framework, students will evaluate and plan intervention strategies for more complex neurologic patient problems, as well as for patients with primary neurologic problems complicated by involvement of multiple other factors/systems.

PT 473 Patient/Client Management: Cardiopulmonary (4)

A detailed class on the evaluation, treatment, and implementation of therapeutic procedures for cardiac and pulmonary patients and other critically ill patients. Includes primary and secondary preventative measures and rehabilitation concepts.

PT 475 Patient/Client Management: Pediatric (2)

A lecture/laboratory course designed to introduce the student to the foundations of assessment and management for the pediatric population. The course provides the requisite knowledge-base and analytical skills for preparation as an entry-level general practitioner of physical therapy.

PT 476 Patient/Client Management: Geriatric (2)

This course focuses on complex assessment and management of aging older adults. The student is exposed to advanced applied science of normal and pathological aging, clinical problems, implications for therapeutic interventions, and intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors impacting older adults' lifespan in order to promote optimal care, functional outcomes, and wellness prevention for older adults.

PT 477 Patient/Client Management: Medical Screening (1)

This course focuses on the roles and responsibilities of the physical therapist in screening for medical disease. Students will revisit and explore in greater depth the signs and symptoms associated with pathology of multiple systems, introduced in previous pathology courses within the curriculum (i.e., general systems, orthopedic, neurologic, cardiopulmonary).

PT 443 and 445 Elective

This required two semester elective course offers students the opportunity to refine and explore areas of PT practice or expand/acquire skills that will enhance practice in the current healthcare environment.

Clinical Experience Courses

PT 481 Clinical Practicum I (0.5)

This course introduces the students to the responsibilities of clinical practice. Students may find themselves in a variety of settings with the aim of developing basic patient handling skills, professional behaviors and socialization under the supervision of a licensed physical therapist.

PT 482 Clinical Practicum II (0.5)

This course continues the student's increasing responsibilities in clinical practice. The use of musculoskeletal interventions will be the primary focus along with the development of professional behaviors. The student will begin developing examination, evaluation and intervention skills while under the supervision of a licensed physical therapist.

PT 483 Clinical Affiliation I (3)

This course is the first of four long-term clinical affiliations designed to develop student clinical competencies in a variety of clinical settings with diverse patients. PT 483 focuses on settings where the primary pathologies, impairments and functional limitations experienced by patients are musculoskeletal. The student will examine, evaluate, diagnose, prognose and design/implement physical therapy interventions while under the supervision of a licensed physical therapist. PT 483 will provide students the opportunity to develop skills directly impacting patient outcomes and professional behaviors.

PT 485 Clinical Affiliation II (4)

This is the second of four long-term clinical affiliations designed to develop the clinical competence of students in a variety of clinical settings with diverse patients. PT 485 focuses on acute and/or out-patient rehabilitation. The primary pathologies, impairments and functional limitations experienced by patients will be neuromusculoskeletal. The student will examine, evaluate, diagnose, prognose, and design/implement physical therapy interventions while under the supervision of a licensed physical therapist. In addition, students will experience multi-disciplinary interactions, administrative responsibilities and professional duties that are unique to this patient population.

PT 487 Final Internship I (5)

This 10-week internship is the third of four affiliations and is designed to develop the clinical competence of the student for generalist physical therapist practice. The setting selected is coordinated with the setting of the Final Internship II and the two prior full-time affiliations (PT 483 and 485) to ensure the student has the appropriate complement of clinical settings and patient diagnoses. The student will examine, evaluate, diagnose, prognose and design/implement physical therapy interventions while under the supervision of a licensed physical therapist. The student will also develop skills in professional and practice management.

PT 488 Final Internship II (6)

This 12-week internship is the final of four clinical affiliations designed to develop the clinical competence of the student for generalist physical therapist practice. The setting this semester will be chosen with input from the student to complement the previous assignments within the scope of physical therapy practice. The student will examine, evaluate, diagnose, prognose, and design/implement physical therapy interventions while under the supervision of a licensed physical therapist. The students will also develop skills in professional and practice management.

PT 489 Repeat Affiliation

This course is utilized for repeating any long term affiliation or internship where the student withdrew or received a grade of "NC." This course may be utilized only once during the course of the program

Critical Thinking/Research Courses

PT 490 Research I: Foundational Concepts of Research (1)

The first course in this series of eight research courses focuses on the development of the understanding and application of the scientific process in clinical practice and research. The importance of validity and reliability to conducting relevant clinical research will be presented from a theoretical and practical perspective. The development of the research hypothesis and choice of independent/dependent variables will be taught in relation to physical therapy diagnosis, prognosis and intervention

PT 491 Research II: Quantitative Research Design and Statistics (1)

The second course in this series of eight research courses focuses on the development of skills necessary to understand quantitative research design and analysis. Students will learn to recognize the application of quantitative research to studying issues related to physical therapy and gain perspective on the limitations and appropriate use of quantitative research methods.

PT 492 Research III: Evidence-Based Practice (1)

The third course in this series of eight research courses focuses on the development of skills necessary to incorporate research evidence into clinical practice. Students will learn to recognize the strengths and limitations of the clinical research paradigm in the study and practice of physical therapy. This course will introduce students to the concepts and philosophies of Evidence-Based Practice.

PT 493 Research IV: Case Reports/Survey Research (1.5)

The fourth course in this series of eight research courses will introduce the students to the use of survey and outcomes research in physical therapy and rehabilitation. Students will learn the importance of these research methodologies in decision making/planning in a clinical and research setting. This course will also focus on the components of a case report and scientific writing skills required for publication of a case report.

PT 494 Scientific Writing (1.0)

Scientific Writing focuses on the skills required to produce a well-written scientific paper. Emphasis is on critical analysis and clear communication of information relevant to physical therapy practice utilizing AMA format.

PT 495A Research VI: Research Development A (1)

PT 495B Research VII: Research Development B (1)

PT 495C Research VIII: Research Forum (1)

The final three courses in this series of eight research courses will focus on developing, conducting and presenting the research projects.

PT 499 Independent Study (1